Analytical and environmental aspects of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A and its derivatives
Covaci, A and Voorspoels, S and Abdallah, MA and Law, RJ and Harrad, S and Geens, T (2009) Analytical and environmental aspects of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A and its derivatives. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216 . pp. 346-363. ISSN 0021-9673
URL of Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.10.16/j.chroma.2008.08.035
Identification Number/DOI: 10.10.16/j.chroma.2008.08.035
The present article reviews the available literature on the analytical and environmental aspects of tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR). Analytical methods, including sample preparation, chromatographic separation, detection techniques, and quality control are discussed. An important recent development in the analysis of TBBP-A is the growing tendency for liquid chromatographic techniques. At the detection stage, mass-spectrometry is a well-established and reliable technology in the identification and quantification of TBBP-A. Although interlaboratory exercises for BFRs have grown in popularity in the last 10 years, only a few participating laboratories report concentrations for TBBP-A. Environmental levels of TBBP-A in abiotic and biotic matrices are low, probably due to the major use of TBBP-A as reactive FR. As a consequence, the expected human exposure is low. This is in agreement with the EU risk assessment that concluded that there is no risk for humans concerning TBBP-A exposure. Much less analytical and environmental information exists for the various groups of TBBP-A derivatives which are largely used as additive flame retardants.
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